Bronchiolitis

Respiratory System


Clinicals - History

Fact Explanation
{"ops":[{"insert":"Introduction"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Bronchiolitis is a viral lower respiratory tract infection characterized by obstruction of the small airways. Respiratory syncytial virus is responsible for most cases, but influenza, adenovirus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza and human metapneumovirus can cause a similar clinical picture. Coinfection with multiple viruses can occur."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Fever"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Fever is a nonspecific, early sign."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Cough"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"While nonspecific, cough is a common symptom in bronchiolitis."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Rhinorrhea"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"While nonspecific, rhinorrhea is a common finding in bronchiolitis, especially early on."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Difficulty feeding"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Respiratory distress, rhinorrhea and nasal congestion may adversely affect feeding."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Respiratory distress"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Signs of repiratory distress may occur after the prodrome. There may be increased respiratory rate and visible retractions, nasal flaring, and\/or grunting."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Apnea"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"There appears to be a relationship between a bronchiolitis diagnosis and apneic episodes. There does not appear to be an association with sudden unexplained infant death."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Death"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"The death rate from bronchiolitis is low and falling, but this can occur due to respiratory failure."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Risk factor: winter season"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"In temperate climates, bronchiolitis is more prevalent during the winter months. There is less of a seasonal preponderance in tropical climates, and suspicion for the disease should be present year-round.\n\nMuch of this is related to the seasonal prevlance of the most common pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Risk factor: young age"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Viral bronchiolitis is more common in children under 2 years of age, and especially in infants under 1 year of age."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Risk factor: prematurity"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Premature infants are at higher risk for hopsitalization due to bronchiolitis."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Risk factor: pre-existing chronic disease"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Infants with chronic heart or lung disease or immunodeficiency may be at higher risk for severe bronchiolitis."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Introduction"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Bronchiolitis is a viral lower respiratory tract infection characterized by obstruction of the small airways. Respiratory syncytial virus is responsible for most cases, but influenza, adenovirus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza and human metapneumovirus can cause a similar clinical picture. Coinfection with multiple viruses can occur."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Fever"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Fever is a nonspecific, early sign."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Cough"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"While nonspecific, cough is a common symptom in bronchiolitis."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Rhinorrhea"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"While nonspecific, rhinorrhea is a common finding in bronchiolitis, especially early on."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Difficulty feeding"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Respiratory distress, rhinorrhea and nasal congestion may adversely affect feeding."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Respiratory distress"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Signs of repiratory distress may occur after the prodrome. There may be increased respiratory rate and visible retractions, nasal flaring, and\/or grunting."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Apnea"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"There appears to be a relationship between a bronchiolitis diagnosis and apneic episodes. There does not appear to be an association with sudden unexplained infant death."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Death"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"The death rate from bronchiolitis is low and falling, but this can occur due to respiratory failure."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Risk factor: winter season"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"In temperate climates, bronchiolitis is more prevalent during the winter months. There is less of a seasonal preponderance in tropical climates, and suspicion for the disease should be present year-round.\n\nMuch of this is related to the seasonal prevlance of the most common pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Risk factor: young age"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Viral bronchiolitis is more common in children under 2 years of age, and especially in infants under 1 year of age."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Risk factor: prematurity"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Premature infants are at higher risk for hopsitalization due to bronchiolitis."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Risk factor: pre-existing chronic disease"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Infants with chronic heart or lung disease or immunodeficiency may be at higher risk for severe bronchiolitis."}]}

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