Cardiac Tamponade

Cardiovascular System


Clinicals - History

Fact Explanation
{"ops":[{"insert":"Definition"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Cardiac tamponade is a clinical syndrome of haemodynamic abnormalities which result from compression of the heart chambers and an increased intrapericardial pressure caused by the accumulation of blood, pus, effusion (transudate or exudate) or air within the pericardial space. The hallmark of cardiac tamponade is the rapid rise and equalization of pressures in all cardiac chambers similar to that of the pericardial sac (20-25 mmHg)."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Causes"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Cardiac tamponade is likely to occur in the setting of chest trauma, cancer, active infection, renal failure, liver disease, aortic dissection or recent heart intervention. In developed countries, invasive cardiac procedures, especially those that require intraprocedural anticoagulation and left atrial access, are the most common cause of acute cardiac tamponade."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Dyspnea"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"The most common symptom of cardiac tamponade is dyspnea. It is caused by pulmonary congestion resulting from reduced cardiac output and impaired systemic venous return in cardiac tamponade."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Chest pain"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Chest pain and chest discomfort are common symptoms of cardiac tamponade, resulting from stretching and irritation of the pericardium."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Palpitations"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Patients with cardiac tamponade may experience palpitations due to the increased adrenergic tone which normally results in sinus tachycardia, but it can also trigger atrial arrhythmias."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Abdominal discomfort"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Patients with subacute tamponade may present with right upper quadrant pain due to hepatic venous congestion."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Haemodynamic collapse"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Cardiac tamponade should be considered to be the cause in all patients presenting with shock, because the rising intrapericardial pressure caused the intraventricular septum to bulge into the LV. This reduces LV diastolic compliance in people with cardiac tamponade, leading to a progressive decrease in stroke volume and blood pressure."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Definition"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Cardiac tamponade is a clinical syndrome of haemodynamic abnormalities which result from compression of the heart chambers and an increased intrapericardial pressure caused by the accumulation of blood, pus, effusion (transudate or exudate) or air within the pericardial space. The hallmark of cardiac tamponade is the rapid rise and equalization of pressures in all cardiac chambers similar to that of the pericardial sac (20-25 mmHg)."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Causes"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Cardiac tamponade is likely to occur in the setting of chest trauma, cancer, active infection, renal failure, liver disease, aortic dissection or recent heart intervention. In developed countries, invasive cardiac procedures, especially those that require intraprocedural anticoagulation and left atrial access, are the most common cause of acute cardiac tamponade."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Dyspnea"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"The most common symptom of cardiac tamponade is dyspnea. It is caused by pulmonary congestion resulting from reduced cardiac output and impaired systemic venous return in cardiac tamponade."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Chest pain"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Chest pain and chest discomfort are common symptoms of cardiac tamponade, resulting from stretching and irritation of the pericardium."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Palpitations"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Patients with cardiac tamponade may experience palpitations due to the increased adrenergic tone which normally results in sinus tachycardia, but it can also trigger atrial arrhythmias."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Abdominal discomfort"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Patients with subacute tamponade may present with right upper quadrant pain due to hepatic venous congestion."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Haemodynamic collapse"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Cardiac tamponade should be considered to be the cause in all patients presenting with shock, because the rising intrapericardial pressure caused the intraventricular septum to bulge into the LV. This reduces LV diastolic compliance in people with cardiac tamponade, leading to a progressive decrease in stroke volume and blood pressure."}]}

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