Thyroid Storm

Endocrine System


Clinicals - History

Fact Explanation
{"ops":[{"insert":"Introduction"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Thyroid storm, also known as a thyrotoxic crisis, is a medical emergency that occurs in people with hyperthyroidism. It can lead to acute multisystem failure and death."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Precipitating factors"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Patients often have a recent history of infection. Other precipitating factors include diabetic complications, pulmonary embolism, surgery, trauma, childbirth, and other causes of physiological stress. These events can lead to freeing of bound thyroid hormones and increased sensitivity of their receptors. The use of radioactive iodine can lead to a massive release of thyroid hormones from the thyroid follicles. Finally, the untimely withdrawal of antithyroid medications can lead to rebound thyrotoxicosis."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Constitutional symptoms"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Thyroid hormones play a role in every organ system. Patients with thyroid storm can present with constitutional symptoms such as weakness and fatigue. Circulating thyroid hormones can enter the cellular cytoplasm where T4 is converted to T3, its active form. Then, T3 binds to nuclear thyroid receptors that induce a cell-specific change in gene activation and protein transcription. The constitutional symptoms and are due to adrenergic hyperactivity and exaggerated excitability of the muscles and central nervous system (CNS)."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Neuropsychiatric symptoms"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Patients may present with a wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms. These include anxiety, hyperirritability, emotional lability, confusion, apathy, and coma. Rarely, dramatic psychotic symptoms, such as delusional parasitosis, can occur. The pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric manifestations of thyroid disease is complex, however, thyroid hormones are known to influence neurotransmitter release and hormone activation."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Palpitations"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Cardiac palpitations are common in patients with thyroid storm. The thyroid hormone directly increases heart and ventricle contractility and thyroid storm can lead to adrenergic hyperactivity."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Diarrhea"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Diarrhea can occur in thyrotoxicosis due to increased motility, malabsorption, and increased adrenergic activity."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Introduction"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Thyroid storm, also known as a thyrotoxic crisis, is a medical emergency that occurs in people with hyperthyroidism. It can lead to acute multisystem failure and death."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Precipitating factors"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Patients often have a recent history of infection. Other precipitating factors include diabetic complications, pulmonary embolism, surgery, trauma, childbirth, and other causes of physiological stress. These events can lead to freeing of bound thyroid hormones and increased sensitivity of their receptors. The use of radioactive iodine can lead to a massive release of thyroid hormones from the thyroid follicles. Finally, the untimely withdrawal of antithyroid medications can lead to rebound thyrotoxicosis."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Constitutional symptoms"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Thyroid hormones play a role in every organ system. Patients with thyroid storm can present with constitutional symptoms such as weakness and fatigue. Circulating thyroid hormones can enter the cellular cytoplasm where T4 is converted to T3, its active form. Then, T3 binds to nuclear thyroid receptors that induce a cell-specific change in gene activation and protein transcription. The constitutional symptoms and are due to adrenergic hyperactivity and exaggerated excitability of the muscles and central nervous system (CNS)."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Neuropsychiatric symptoms"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Patients may present with a wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms. These include anxiety, hyperirritability, emotional lability, confusion, apathy, and coma. Rarely, dramatic psychotic symptoms, such as delusional parasitosis, can occur. The pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric manifestations of thyroid disease is complex, however, thyroid hormones are known to influence neurotransmitter release and hormone activation."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Palpitations"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Cardiac palpitations are common in patients with thyroid storm. The thyroid hormone directly increases heart and ventricle contractility and thyroid storm can lead to adrenergic hyperactivity."}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Diarrhea"},{"insert":"\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Diarrhea can occur in thyrotoxicosis due to increased motility, malabsorption, and increased adrenergic activity."}]}

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